In this article, automotive engineer, Erin Shipp, P.E., discusses some of the engineering solutions that are used to improve safety for those entering and exiting large trucks. She also discusses the three point rule and other safety procedures that should be followed to prevent potentially serious injuries.
In the trucking industry, there is a very specific way of getting into and out of a large truck. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulation Subpart L has requirements in sections 399.201 through 211 that specifically apply to High Profile Cab Over Engine (COE) trucks that have been in effect since 1982. That standard states:
Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall be afforded sufficient steps and handholds, and/or deck plates to allow the user to have at least 3 limbs in contact with the truck or truck-tractor at any time.
This is normally referred to as the “three point rule” and is referenced in instructions for climbing ladders, poles, trees, and even in rock climbing. By having 3 limbs in contact with the equipment, if one were to slip, a fall is less likely to occur.
When this standard for Cab over Engine trucks came into effect, many manufacturers used the guidelines for all of their vehicles, including conventional cabs and all rear of cab access. Truck drivers are taught the three point rule in driver training and by responsible trucking companies.
The Three Point Rule
- Only climb on or get off when the equipment or vehicle is stationary
- Always mount or climb down while facing the truck or the equipment
- Make sure that the points of contact you as using are clear of debris, mud, grease, etc…
- Only use points of contact that were intended to be used to climb on or dismount
The “three point rule” can be considered a standard of care for all large trucks. Despite efforts to improve safety, falls from trucks, resulting in injuries, still occur.
The forensic analysis of these falls often brings up many questions:
- Was the step and handhold system safely designed to ensure three point control at all times?
- Were there design issues such as protruding fasteners that may affect the stability of the person that fell?
- Was the three point rule used by the person that fell?
- Was the person that fell a professional driver?
- Was the person that fell properly trained?
- Does the vehicle carry untrained passengers?
- Were instructions provided in clear view of the driver and passenger?
- Is a Commercial Driver’s License required to operate the vehicle?
These issues and more may be relevant to your investigation. Contact vehicle engineer, Erin Shipp, P.E., to discuss your case and how she may assist with your investigation.
Erin has more than 30 years of engineering experience involving product design and development of heavy trucks, motor homes, buses, and passenger cars.
Erin is no longer accepting new case assignments, but Robson Forensic offers other vehicle engineers with specific expertise reconstruction heavy truck collisions.
Please contact the head of our vehicle crash group, Peter J Leiss, P.E. to discuss your case, or submit an inquiry through our website.