Raymond L. Lee, Ph.D.

Raymond L. Lee Ph.D.

Meteorologist & Visibility Expert

Dr. Lee is an expert in determining weather conditions at a particular time and location, how weather and ambient conditions affect human vision, and how weather events affect other incidents such as property damage and public gatherings. Dr. Lee has been a research professor at the US Naval Academy since 1991.

Raymond L. Lee, Jr., Ph.D. is an expert in assessing site-specific weather history, visibility under different lighting and weather conditions, including cases that involve rain, snow, fog, and nighttime street lighting, as well as those where glare from sunlight or headlights is at issue. He routinely applies his expertise to vehicle collisions, including those involving pedestrians, and to pedestrian slips, trips, and falls. Dr. Lee has extensive experience in forensic meteorology and can draw on a wide range of government and private weather records as part of his investigation of your case.

Dr. Lee has engaged in meteorological research and education for over 40 years, including his tenure as a research professor in the Mathematics & Science Division at the U. S. Naval Academy. He has been awarded seven highly competitive grants from the National Science Foundation. He has testified nationally and has researched and written more than 120 technical reports for both civil and criminal cases during the past 19 years. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the Illuminating Engineering Society, and the Optical Society of America


Dr. Lee is regularly retained to investigate a broad range of injuries and damage claims related to adverse weather and human vision. Topics representative of his casework include:

  • Driver Reaction to Signs and Other Traffic Control Devices
  • Evaluation of Glare from Sunlight and Headlights
  • Nighttime and Daytime Visibility of Warning Lights and Traffic Control Devices
  • Nighttime Visibility Using Headlights
  • Visibility in Outdoor and Indoor Lighting
  • Visibility through Windshields and through Fog, Haze, and Snow
  • Photometry, Colorimetry, and Photogrammetry from Digital Images
  • Evaluation of Icing and Melting Conditions
  • Evaluation of Site-specific Wind Speeds and Forces
  • Past Weather from Weather Radar and Surface Reports

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