Peggy W. Liu, AIA, NCARB, CFM, ASCA-C, CPSI Architecture, Construction & Premises Safety Expert

Peggy W. Liu, Architecture, Construction & Premises Safety Expert

Peggy Liu is a Registered Architect with two decades of professional experience in architectural design, construction, and project management. Her experience includes a wide range of building and facility types, from single-family residences, high-rise construction, mixed-use buildings, and multi-residential and commercial occupancies. Peggy applies her expertise to forensic casework involving premises liability disputes, construction claims and flood damage claims in flood hazard areas.

Peggy W. Liu, RA, CFM, NCARB - Architecture, Construction & Premises Safety Expert

Peggy spent a decade working for the New York City Department of Buildings, culminating as a Code Development Architect. As such, she is well-versed in building and construction codes as they apply to housing, hotels, and commercial properties. Peggy was also a subject matter expert in flood zone compliance and is proficient in FEMA regulations for management of flood hazard areas. Throughout her professional career, Peggy has held the roles of principal architect, project manager, and architectural designer. Having overseen projects from initial concept through completion, she has in-depth knowledge of the building industry and the relationship between design elements within the built environment and safety and accessibility. Peggy’s forensic casework examines disputes related to large scale projects, as well as safety concerns over smaller individual design elements such as walkways, stairs, handrails, and lighting.

Peggy earned her Master of Architecture degree from New Jersey Institute of Technology and holds a Bachelor of Science, double major in Management Information Systems and Marketing from New York University’s Stern School of Business. Peggy is certified by the National Council of Registration Boards (NCARB) with registrations in New Jersey and New York. She is also an ASFPM Certified Floodplain Manager (CFM).

Professional Experience

Robson Forensic, Inc.


2023 to present

Provide technical investigations, analysis, reports, and testimony for failure analysis, and towards the resolution of commercial and personal injury litigation involving slip, trip, and fall injuries; construction materials failures; code compliance issues; construction claims; and professional liability. Services include:

Walkway Safety: Measurement and analysis of stair geometry and construction; single steps; misalignments of walking surfaces; gratings; sidewalks – obstructions and maintenance; unmarked sloped areas.

Human Factors: Body movements and forces imparted during walking, use of stairs, slipping, tripping, and falling, human interaction with the built environment.

Issues for Special Users: Barrier-Free standards, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) guidelines, access for persons with disabilities, special requirements for the elderly and children of various age groups.

Building Safety: Codes, standards; lighting levels and uniformity; unprotected openings in floors and walls; guard rails; glass and glazing.

Conspicuousness of Hazards: Placement, effectiveness, and illumination of warnings; signage; color and contrast of adjacent materials.

Building Failures: Foundation cracking, settling, or failures due to soil conditions, grading, and water intrusion; roof and wall collapses; construction means and methods.

Construction Materials Failures: Water intrusion related issues; brick, stone, and concrete spalling; gutter and flashing system failures; roofing system failures; expansion joint failures; sealant and caulk system failures, window system failures.

Building Design and Planning: Building codes and standards; means of egress; security; retrofitting requirements, access for persons with disabilities; New York City building codes and code compliance for new and existing buildings and building alterations.

Site design and Planning: Site planning; zoning; grading and drainage; control of storm water; parking lots; access for persons with disabilities.

New York City Department of Buildings

2013 to 2023
Code Development Architect/Administrative Architect  2019-2023

Technical Advisor to the revisions of the NYC Construction Codes, which include the NYC Electrical Code, NYC Existing Building Code, and the 2022 NYC Building Code. Review and determine acceptable means of alternative compliance constructions in the areas of Means of Egress, Fire Protection, Modular Construction, Flood Hazard Mitigation construction, and Zoning. Co-author various Technical Building Bulletins and Construction Advisories to clarify the application and interpretation of building codes, zoning resolution, department operations processes and construction practices. Provided technical research on zoning and building code implications and possible barriers for special projects which included: Conversion of office buildings to residential; Conversion of hotels to residential; Legalization of basement apartments. Conduct technical reviews of proposals for new bills affecting NYC constructions, as proposed by NYC council members. Assist the NYC Floodplain Administrator in reviewing flood hazard mitigation projects, LOMA, CLOMA, and LOMR-F application packages. Perform site investigations, report findings, and recommend corrective actions as needed to ensure public safety in building safety incidents. Represent the Department of Buildings in various interagency task forces and initiatives, including: 2024 NYC Hazard Mitigation Plan; Humanitarian Emergency Response and Relief Centers as per NYC Mayor's Emergency Executive Order; New York City Environmental Justice Study (EJNYC) as per NYC Local Law 60 and 64; Standing Water Task Force.

Assistant Chief Plan Examiner – Manhattan Borough  2017-2019

Supervised a team plan examiners in reviewing construction permit applications for code compliance in the focused areas of Fire Protection, Egress, Zoning, Accessibility, and Energy Code Compliance in the borough of Manhattan. Conducted quality assurance of plan examinations to department standards. Resolved public inquiries on construction compliance, permit process, and plan examination. Coordinated the Manhattan Plan Examination Audit program. Trialed code non-compliance issues and assigned audit assignments to a group of 6 auditors.

Sustainability Coordinator  2015-2017

Conducted a pilot study to determine the most efficient and effective way to expand the energy code enforcement program as an initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As the sustainability coordinator, I co-directed the execution of the pilot program along with my counterpart that was responsible for the inspection portion of the pilot project. My responsibilities included: Managing and training of plan examiners to review construction permit applications for energy code compliance of alteration/renovation projects throughout NYC; Developing and executing a project plan for a 1-year pilot program to assess the current energy code compliance of alteration/renovation projects; Collaborating in writing the pilot program compliance assessment report for the city. The report highlighted pilot program development challenges, overall compliance metrics, and provided recommendations for future implementation of an effective permanent plan examination program.

Sustainability Plan Examiner 2013-2015

Plan Examiner for New Buildings, focusing on compliance with the New York City Energy Conservation Code. Review projects covering a wide range of building typologies, including single-family detached homes, high-rise constructions, mixed-use buildings, and residential and commercial occupancies.

Dark Horse Architecture and Design Ventures, LLC

Principal Architect

2019 to present

Provide architectural design, zoning and building code consulting services.

Hustvedt Cutler Architects

Project Manager

2010 to 2013

Provided architectural support in a variety of project types, including Schematic Design, Design Development, and Construction Documentation. Projects included: Loft conversion to mixed-use retail and multiple dwelling occupancy building with penthouse addition; Interior fit-out of commercial spaces, including a drinking and eating establishment, cabaret, and retail use.

3T Architects

Architectural Designer

2008 to 2010

Provided architectural support in various project phases, including Schematic Design, Design Development, Construction Documentation, and Construction Administration. Projects included: Construction of a new restaurant which received an AIA ENY Award; multiple DHCR funded affordable housing projects. Schematic design of 70-unit active senior residential community. Construction documentation of interior fit-out of strip mall spaces for national retailers.

The Biber Partnership

Intern Architect

2007 to 2008

Provided architectural support, including the production of construction documents and presentation materials. Worked on the interior and exterior 3D renderings of Rutgers University's new dining hall and student center renovation.

T.F. Cusanelli Architects and Planners

Project Manager

2005 to 2007

Managed multiple dwelling projects from Schematic Design to obtaining a Certificate of Occupancy. Provided site and zoning analysis, design, drafting of construction drawings, and facilitated the process of obtaining building permits. Assisted in coordination, drafting, 3D modeling, and site surveys for larger projects.

Tricarico Architecture and Design
(fka Nicholas J. Tricarico Architects PC)

CAD Operator

2004 to 2005

Provided architectural drafting support, site surveys, and preparation of interior fit-out construction documents for the Men's Wearhouse studio at an integrated architecture and design firm specializing in retail, automotive, corporate interiors, food service, commercial, and fitness & health.

New Jersey Institute of Technology

Teaching Assistant

2002 to 2004


Ricci Greene Associates

Part Time Internship

2002 to 2003

Provided office support at a full-service architectural firm specialized in justice facilities.

Other Professional Experience

Multiple Marketing Positions

1999 to 2001


Bank of America (fka Merrill Lynch)

Swaps / Derivatives Business Systems Analyst

1997 to 1999


Deutsche Bank (fka Bankers Trust Company)

Telecom QA Specialist

1996 to 1997


Professional Credentials

  • Registered Professional Architect: New Jersey, New York
  • Certified by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB)
  • ASFPM Certified Floodplain Manager


Master of Architecture, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ

Bachelor of Science, Information Systems, New York University, Stern School of Business, New York, NY

Continuing Education

  • Resilience: Consideration Beyond Code Requirements, March 2023
  • Wood & Concrete: The Approval and Use of Alternative Materials, 2023
  • Expanded Use of Timber, AIA CES, February 2023
  • NYC Building Code - Accessibility, December 2022
  • Plumbing Systems, November 2022
  • Plumbing, Mechanical, Fuel Gas, August 2022
  • Identifying Existing Lawful Conditions in Historic Buildings, May 2022
  • Special Engineering Review Projects, May 2022
  • 2016 NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, April 2022
  • 2016 NFPA 20, Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, April 2022
  • NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Introduction to Lidar, March 2022
  • FEMA IS-00240.c Leadership and Influence, March 2022
  • FEMA IS-00100.c Introduction to Incident Command System, March 2022
  • FEMA IS-01106.a FEMA Mapping Changes, March 2022
  • Health and Fitness Zoning Text Amendment in 2022, February 2022
  • Department of Buildings Continuity of Operations (COOP) 2021 Full-Scale Exercise, October 2021
  • NYC Zoning Resolution Requirements for Obstructions in Required Yards and Open Spaces, and Updated Flood Zone Requirements, October 2021
  • New York City Requirements for Accessibility in Buildings, April 2021
  • Introduction to BC 1403.8 Bird Friendly Design & Construction Requirements, January 2021
  • OSHA 30-hour Construction Safety and Health, December 2020
  • 4HR Confined Space Hazard Awareness, December 2020
  • 2HR Asbestos Awareness, December 2020
  • FEMA IS-00010.a Animals in Disasters: Awareness and Preparedness, May 2020
  • FEMA IS-00063.b Geospatial Information Infrastructure (GII), May 2020
  • FEMA IS-00279.a Introduction to Retrofitting Flood-Prone Residential Buildings, May 2020
  • FEMA IS-00909 Community Preparedness Implementing Simple Activities for Everyone, May 2020
  • Complex Elevator Case Studies, April 2019
  • Underpinning and the Support of Excavations, November 2018
  • Introduction to Building Code Chapter 11 Accessibility Requirements, September 2018
  • Multiple Dwelling Law - Case Studies, May 2018
  • Understanding the Importance of Zola and its New Features, April 2018
  • Intro to Multiple Dwelling law with Case Studies, April 2018
  • Parking Regulations and Case Studies - Residential, Commercial and Manufacturing Districts, February 2018
  • Introduction to Building Code Accessibility with 3 Case Studies for Review and Application, October 2017
  • Intro to Building Code Egress Requirements with 4 Case Studies for Interpretation and application, September 2017
  • Flood-Resistant Construction Plan Examination Training, September 2017
  • NYC's First Net Zero Energy School - A Bridge to the Future, September 2017
  • HVAC Plan Review with Regards to NYCECC (Part 2), June 2017
  • Case Studies (Zoning): Zoning Lot Types & Issues in Non-Compliance, May 2017
  • 1 RCNY 105-04: Sign hangers, and HVAC Plan Review with Regards to the NYCECC, April 2017
  • Interpretation and Application of the NYC Zoning Resolution, Multiple Dwelling Law & Building Code to Case Studies, March 2017

Speaking Engagements

  • 2023 New York Build Expo: Wood & Concrete - The Approval and Use of Alternative Building Materials, March 2023
  • 2022 Build Safe Live Safe Conference: 2022 Building Code and Flood-Resilient Construction, July 2022
  • New York City Department of Buildings Trainings:
    • Expanded Use of Timber, February 2023
    • 2022 Construction Code Update Inspector Training, February 2023
    • Building Flood Zone Requirements, February 2023
    • Fire, Smoke, Flooding, September 2022

v. 06/13/24